An example problem involves the calculus of variations involving a continuous first function, an exponential function, and a series contraction. First we must understand that the integral formula for functions can be used on sums and derivatives. The concept behind this type of problem is that there is an unknown factor which is involved in determining how far away the value of the constant c will be at any point in time. The variables x and y represent the unknown variable c, and the constant k is the rate of change of the value of c at any point in time.

It is possible to take Calculus of Variations through many different methods, and for most students, the easiest way to complete the course is through direct methods. Direct methods of solving a calculus of variations problem will not use any calculus techniques but will simply require the student to plot the function as it evolves. This is often seen as the most simple way to complete the problem, especially for students who have little or no prior experience working with calculus.

In terms of an introduction to the calculus of variations, the first class requirement is to find the generalized function and set up the initial conditions so that the function fits the data. Next the student will learn about derivatives by introducing the operator algebra o (x) and its use with functions of different variables a b, c, d, e, and f. derivatives will be necessary for all functions of variables a b, c, d, e, and f. After this course, the student can learn how to plot the function as it evolves along the x axis.

After learning the above concepts and procedures, the student should be ready to tackle a couple of problems involving the calculus of variations. These problems involve using the Taylor series calculator to determine the value of the partial derivative of the integral function f(a b) which involves applying the quadratic formula to the plotted function. Another method of solving the problem involves using the binomial tree to solve the first derivatives of a polynomial equation by plotting the function on the lower half of the screen. The final portion of this problem requires taking a weighted average of the results obtained by these four methods and performs the integral of the function using the binomial tree.

The last two problems are both exercises that must be solved using the Bruce van router’s calculus of variations method. For the first one, students must identify the main cause for the nonholonomic constraints. The second one deals with the use of an unequal number of slabs and displays the consequences of these slabs on the slopes of the curve.

Problem one in particular is quite tricky because it has to be solved without using any prior knowledge of calculus. This task however, is made easier by the fact that it contains four quadratic equations that all need to be solved using the Bruce van routeren method. This makes the entire first semester course worth the effort put into it because it is one of the few courses in the entire program that uses real mathematics in its curriculum. Furthering the difficulty level of this particular course is the fact that the solutions to the nonholonomic constraints are given by the binomial tree, thus making it even harder to solve the equations.

In the following paragraphs, I will discuss the solutions to the problem “Calculus of Variations, Solving the Diagonal Equation.” It is important to note that this problem was first published as “A differential calculus with integral functions” in Journal of the Analysis of Variations and Measurement. In this paper, van router makes reference to many earlier works, most notably, van der Gras and van Maarsman. He also refers to other individuals as important contributors to calculus. In fact, van Maarsman is cited four times in this chapter and the book.